Digestive System

The average male will eat about 50 tons of food in his lifetime.

Major Functions

  • Converts food to energy
  • Prepares waste for removal from the body
  • hydration of body

List and Functions of Major Organs in Order

  1. mouth - physically breaks down the food using teeth.
  2. esophagus - moves food to stomach via peristalsis.
  3. stomach - mixes food with digestive juices and enzymes; also serves as a storage.
  4. small intestine - three segments, duodenum, jejunum, ileum. Duodenum continues the breakdown of food bile produced from the liver. Ileum and jejunum absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream. Food moves along the small intestine via peristalsis.
  5. pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum in addition to producing insulin.
  6. liver - detoxifies the body in addition to releasing bile into the small intestine and processing nutrients.
  7. gallbladder - also stores and releases bile.
  8. large intestine - includes colon, processes food and waste products to facilitate excrement.
  9. rectum - holds stool until ready for excrement.
  10. anus - excretes waste.
  11. sphincters throughout - muscles that surround the opening and ends of a tube to control the movement of food.

Alimentary Canal Organs and Accessory Organs

Alimentary canal organs are organs that the food and liquid consumed travels through such as the intestines and the stomach. Accessory organs are organs that directly aids in digestion via secretions.

Major Digestive Enzymes

Proteases and peptidases - splits proteins into amino acids
lipase - splits fats into fatty acids and a glycerol molecule
carbohydrase - splits carbohydrates into simple sugars
nuclease - splits nucleic acids into nucleotides